Pupillary Pathways

Follow Us

After Reading This, You Won’t Prescribe The Wrong Antiviral Medication Ever Again!

Posted by Talin Amadian on October 20, 2020 at 11:32 AM
Talin Amadian
Dr. Talin Amadian is a practicing optometrist, writer and content contributor for Optoprep. She graduated from Western University of Health Sciences College of Optometry and continues to practice in Southern California. Her clinical training includes Neuro-Ophthalmology, Cornea and Refractive Surgery, Glaucoma and Ocular Disease. Dr. Amadian takes pride in educating patients and providing specialized care and education based on each patient’s needs. She is passionate about dry eye treatment and management. During her spare time, she enjoys mentoring and helping prospective optometry students succeed.

Oct2020_OPBlog02_Header

Optometry students and even young optometrists often fear the day they see their first viral infection, regardless of the etiology. In fact, viral infections can be one of the trickiest types of infections to treat. Starting off, I had a hard time knowing what to prescribe and when to prescribe in terms of viral conjunctivitis.

However, I’ve figured out that the once intimidating antiviral class of drugs is probably one of the easiest classes of drugs to prescribe and differentiate!

New call-to-action

The two most common viral eye infection types are herpetic and adenoviral infections. Adenoviral infections can sometimes be severe, but most often resolve with supportive therapy, therefore antiviral medications are not indicated. Herpetic infections can become severe and sight threatening if left untreated, so antiviral agents are most often necessary in their treatment and management.

Today I’ll go over some clinical pearls and review ophthalmic antivirals that are used for one of the main categories of viral infections in the eye.

Oct2020_OPBlog02_InstagramC

Herpetic Infections

The herpes family of viruses affect the DNA of humans. Upon infection, DNA replication begins when the virion binds to the plasma membrane of the host cell, causing fusion of the envelope with the cellular envelope of the host cell. The capsid and tegument are then transported to the nucleus where viral DNA is released and transcription follows as usual. The genus of the herpes family that are responsible for ocular manifestations are Simplexvirus & Varicellovirus.

The genus Simplexvirus contains two common viruses that affect the eye: Herpes Simplex 1 (HSV1) and Herpes Simplex 2 (HSV2). Upon infection, these can cause sores, ulcerations, conjunctivitis, and keratitis. The genus Varicellovirus contains Varicella Zoster (VSZ) commonly known as chickenpox and shingles. VSZ can also cause sores and inflammation around and on the surface of the eye. Both can cause epithelial defects of varying intensity on the cornea.

Antiviral Medication Mechanism of Action

Viruses cannot reproduce by themselves. Therefore, they attack and “hijack” the host cell. The herpes family of viruses are DNA viruses, and therefore rely on DNA polymerase, which catalyzes the synthesis of DNA within the cell. Therefore, the antiviral agents we will be discussing are classified as DNA polymerase inhibitors.

Topical Antivirals

Topical therapy is recommended in the case of HSV keratitis and Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. Both topical antiviral medications below are DNA polymerase inhibitors.

Trifluridine (Viroptic®): Dosed 9x/day in active HSV keratitis. Epithelial toxicity has been noted with Viroptic® due to the presence of thimerosal. Viroptic® burns upon instillation.

Ganciclovir (Zirgan®): Dosed 5x/day in active HSV keratitis. Note that Zirgan® is preserved with BAK (benzalkonium chloride), allowing reduced discomfort and epithelial toxicity compared to Viroptic®.

Oral Antivirals

Oral antivirals are typically used for systemic herpetic manifestations but can be used to treat ocular signs as well. These drugs are active against HSV1, HSV2, Shingles, and Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus. A patient with a history of herpes can be on long term treatment and already started on one of these oral medications by their primary care physician. Please note that oral antivirals can be an effective treatment method for HSV keratitis but have not been FDA approved for this condition specifically. Their use in the treatment of HSV keratitis is off-label. In the case of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus, treatment should be initiated less than 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Below are the recommended dosing patterns for oral antivirals for the treatment of Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.

  •  Acyclovir (Zovirax®): 800 mg five times daily for seven days
  •  Valacyclovir (Valtrex®): 1000 mg three times daily for seven days
  •  Famciclovir (Famvir®): 500 mg three times daily for seven days

Antivirals may seem intimidating, but with the proper diagnosis, you can accurately treat and manage viral eye infections quickly and effectively. Make sure to run all necessary diagnostic tests and perform all observations. Once you have diagnosed the condition specifically, prescribing will be a breeze!

Oct2020_OPBlog02_InstagramB

-   Dr. Amadian

New call-to-action

Topics: Antiviral Medication

Download Now!

 

Subscribe to Our Blog

New call-to-action

 

Popular Posts

Posts by Topic

see all

New Call-to-action